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Mathematica 10.1. Multiplication Tables for the Group of Integers Modulo n. Modulo are natural numbers in which all integers having the same remainder are considered equivalent: Euclid set the foundation of modular arithmetic in the third century BC. C. F. Gauss developed the modern approach to modular arithmetic in the early 1800s. Modular arithmetic permeates the fields of number theory, group theory, knot theory, abstract algebra, cryptography, computer science and even the visual and musical arts. From a script by Jaime Rangel-Mondragon.